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Diseases Caused by Deficiency of Vitamin A, D E, K

Diseases Caused by Deficiency of Vitamin A is a type of organic substance. In English, it is called “organic substance“. Vitamins are included in “micro-nutrients”. That is the nutrients needed to maintain the body’s health, which is needed in small quantities, and are not made by the body itself. As a result, these nutrients have to be supplied to the body from the outside.

Diseases Caused by Deficiency of Vitamin

Vitamins play a very important role in various metabolic functions of the body. These are of two types. E.g.

  1. Fat-soluble vitamins.
  2. Water-soluble vitamins.

Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin B complex group and vitamin C, water-soluble vitamins. Our discussion today is about fat-soluble vitamins.

An overall picture of deficiency of vitamin

Mainly in developing countries, such as our country, vitamin deficiency diseases are more common. However, such patients are sometimes found in developed countries. Older people or those who drink in general are at risk for vitamin B, vitamin D, and C deficiency symptoms.

If the mother is deficient in vitamins during pregnancy, both the mother and the unborn child may be affected. Therefore, subject to the doctor’s advice, the mother needs to take extra vitamins during pregnancy.

Vitamin D deficiency can be caused by a lack of sunlight in those who live on high ground, black skin, do not go out in the sun, or cover their bodies excessively (such as those wearing a burqa or hijab). People at this type of risk need to take vitamin D differently.

Vitamin deficiency can also be caused by various diseases and taking harsh medicines. Fat Mal-Absorption If the body fails to process fats properly, a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins can occur.

What is the need for vitamin A and why?

Vitamin A is also called retinol. Retinol is found in foods of animal origin. Vitamin A can also be found in carotene. Only green and colorful vegetables contain carotene. For vegetarians, who eat only vegetables, carotene is the only source of vitamin A.

Retinol is converted into some more important molecules after entering the body. E.g.

* 11-cc-retinaldehyde: This molecule is a very important part of the photoreceptor complex in the retina of the eye.

* Retinoic acid:  Retinoic acid activates the genetic activity of epithelial cells in the skin by binding to receptors in the nucleus. As a result, the skin cells divide. In the absence of vitamin A, keratin-producing cells replace mucus-secreting cells. That is why the skin becomes rough due to a lack of vitamin A.

* Retinoids: Retinoids are needed for normal growth of the body, growth of the baby during pregnancy, human fertility, blood cell production, and maintaining immunity. So vitamin A deficiency can cause problems in these areas.

Worldwide, the most serious consequence of vitamin A deficiency is the loss of vision in children. Blindness due to vitamin A deficiency is usually not cured by treatment. This problem is most common in Asia. Attempts are being made to address the problem on a large scale by providing vitamin-A supplements to all children.

Adults generally do not have the risk of blindness caused by this vitamin. Because the liver can store some vitamins. If a person abstains from eating vitamin-rich foods for a while, the liver secretes its stored vitamin to make up for the deficiency.

Vitamin A deficiency blindness is an early stage of night blindness. In the dim light of night, the patient sees nothing.

Vitamin A deficiency causes cornea and keratinization of the eye. This is called “xerophthalmia”. This results in a “bigots spot” in the eye. It later progresses to “keratomalacia”. Then ulcers develop in the cornea. Ulcers form in the eyesores as a result. The end result is blindness. There is no cure for this blindness yet.

In countries where vitamin A deficiency is very common, mothers should eat dark green vegetables and yellow fruits during pregnancy. This allows the fetal liver to store retinol. After the baby starts eating by mouth, he should also be given these foods.

In areas where xerophthalmia is seen, the World Health Organization is working to prevent blindness. To this end, the WHO conducts oral feeding of 60 mg of retinol palmitate (containing 200,000 units of retinol) to young children who have not yet gone to school. Mortality from gastroenteritis and various respiratory infections can also be reduced.

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Problems with taking in extra vitamins

Danger even if retinol is taken excessively and excessively. Various kinds of problems occur. Excessive retinal detachment results in liver damage. In many cases, osteoporosis occurs.

If the mother takes more than enough vitamin A, the fetus may die. For this reason, in countries where there is no outbreak of vitamin A deficiency disease, taking vitamin A supplements is prohibited.

Vitamin A is also contraindicated in people who suffer from osteoporosis or osteoporosis.

Sudden overdose of vitamin A can increase nausea, headaches, intracranial pressure, or intracranial pressure.

Too much vitamin A can lead to skin discoloration or skin rashes.

Too much carotene can cause pigmentation of the skin, meaning the skin may change color (usually orange). This phenomenon is called hyper carotenoids.

Reducing vitamin intake also restores the skin to its normal color.

Foods rich in vitamin A (retinol):

The liver is rich in vitamins. For example, if you put cow’s liver in one meal, all your vitamin-A needs will be met. Also, milk and dairy foods, eggs, fish oil are excellent sources of vitamin A.

The maximum daily intake of vitamin A is good for health: 600 micrograms for men and 700 micrograms for women.

What is vitamin-D and why is it needed?

The natural form of vitamin-D is called cholecalciferol or vitamin D-three.

Cholecalciferol is formed as a result of the action of ultraviolet rays on the ‘৭-dihydroxy cholesterol’ of human skin. “৭-dihydroxy cholesterol” is a compound that is formed from the metabolism of cholesterol.

The number of foods rich in vitamin-D is very low. So sunlight is the main source of vitamin D. The farther you move from the equator, the lower the intensity of the ultraviolet rays. As a result, in areas beyond the fifty-degree axis, vitamin-D is not produced in the human body in winter.

Northern Europe is also one of the areas where vitamin-D is not produced. Even in areas with a latitude of 30 degrees, the production of vitamin D stops with the seasons. The people of this country continue the winter with as much vitamin-D as they can accumulate in the body during the summer.

Vitamin D – “25-hydroxy-vitamin-D” is converted into the liver. More hydroxyl is obtained when this compound enters the kidneys. Became – “1,25-di-hydroxyvitamin-D”. This compound is the active form of vitamin-D. “1,25-di-hydroxyvitamin-D” activates certain intracellular specific receptors (i.e., some molecular structures that can react to the compound).

The receptors that are activated, in turn, play a role in the human body’s calcium metabolism, enriching bone minerals, and dividing and growing tissue. That is why, when vitamin-D is deficient, your body suffers from calcium-related problems.

Compared to the natural form of vitamin-D, i.e. vitamin D-3, the synthetic form of vitamin-ago-chole-calciferol or ‘vitamin two is less effective.

It is possible to prevent “rickets” and “osteomalacia” by taking vitamin-D in moderation. Adequate vitamin D, meat increases muscle strength. And protects older people from falling and accidents. Many problems related to bones and muscles can also be solved by taking moderate amounts of vitamin-D.

In developed countries – margarine, milk – enough vitamin-D is added to these foods.

In countries with sunlight problems, everyone over the age of five is asked to take 10 micrograms of vitamin-D daily.

People who do not go out in the sun at all are at risk of vitamin-D deficiency symptoms. People who stay at home all day, just like people who had to stay during the lockdown of the Corona epidemic, may also have problems with this vitamin deficiency.

Also, people whose skin color is black or when the whole body is covered from head to toe should take 10 micrograms of vitamin-D daily throughout the year. In the case of others, it is enough to take it in the wintertime. Although the lack of sun in the winter of our country is not so obvious.

Calcipotriol, a compound with a molecular structure similar to vitamin D, is used to treat psoriasis.

Excessive intake of calciferol, argocalciferol can cause hypercalcemia. In other words, the level of calcium in the body increases, and various types of complications occur.

Vitamin D-rich foods:  fish oil, egg yolk. 218 International Units Vitamin-D is present in egg yolks. Also, vitamin-D-added margarine and cereals are good sources. However, one of the most important sources is sunlight.

The amount of vitamin D you will take daily: 10 micrograms. This only applies to those who do not go out in the sun, can not go out.

What is the need for vitamin E?

There are eight other fat-soluble compounds associated with the activity of vitamin-E. The most important form of vitamin E in the diet is alpha-tocopherol. Vitamin-E has many direct metabolic activities. E.g.

Free-radicals cause oxidation of poly-unsaturated fatty acids in cell membranes. This results in erosion of the cell membrane. Vitamin E does not allow this to happen.

  • Vitamin-E keeps the cell membrane intact.
  • Vitamin E plays a role in making DNA and transmitting signals between cells.
  • Vitamin E works to prevent inflammation and disease.
  • Vitamin E deficiency is not commonly seen in humans. Symptoms of vitamin deficiency can occur only in pre-macular newborns and those who have problems with the digestive process after digestion.

Lack of vitamin-E can lead to hemolytic anemia. Nervous system problems – ‘ataxia’ – can manifest symptoms. As the patient’s words will be involved, the body will not be able to balance. Patients suffering from partial blindness due to lack of this vitamin.

Vitamin-E is usually prescribed in three to four mg. But a thousand times more than that, that is, even if you take 3200 mg a day, there is no danger.

The direct role of vitamin E in heart health is not yet known, but in countries where people eat foods rich in vitamin E, the incidence of coronary heart disease is lower.

Vitamin-E-rich foods:  Sunflower-oil, vegetables, nuts, seeds: oil.

Vitamin-E intake per day is enough:  three to four mg.

Why do you need vitamins?

Why do you need vitamins

Vitamin K1 or phylloquinone is the form of vitamin K that people take in their diet in the UK and adjoining areas. On the other hand, people in Asia get vitamin K from fermented foods such as yogurt and cheese. The form of vitamin K in these foods is called vitamin K2 or menaquinone. Also, bacteria in the colon make vitamin K2.

The process of blood clotting in our body depends on some factor-protein. One of the components in each of these proteins is “GLA-A” or gamma-carboxyglutamate. Through the carboxylation reaction produced by this gamma-carboxyglutamate. And vitamin K, one of the co-constituents of this reaction. This is why the role of vitamin K in the process of blood clotting is important.

Other important GL proteins are osteocalcin and matrix gel protein. These proteins are important in enriching the bones with minerals.

Vitamin K deficiency can lead to blood clotting complications. For a person suffering from a deficiency of this vitamin, slight injury and bleeding can take horrific forms. Surgeons are reluctant to treat these patients even if some kind of surgery is required. Due to bleeding complications, the patient may die at the operating theater table.

In patients with obstructive jaundice, dietary vitamins are not normally absorbed by the body. So before surgery, intravenous vitamin K is given. This is very important, and should not be forgotten.

Clots of blood clots are often caused by blood quality problems or some other reason. Such clots or blood clots can block blood vessels in the heart, brain, or any other vital organ of the body. In these cases, “warfarin”, commonly known as a blood thinner, is used. The main strategy in this warfarin is to prevent vitamin K from working.

Vitamin K is almost always given to newborns. Vitamin K is given to protect the child from various blood-borne diseases or hemorrhagic diseases.

Problems with excess vitamin K are not uncommon. There are many instances of liver damage when artificial vitamins are used to treat hemorrhagic diseases in newborns.

Vitamin K-rich foods:  soy oil, intestinal menaquinone.

How much vitamin K to take daily:  One microgram per kg body weight.

Vitamins are a very important nutrient. One of the advantages of fat-soluble vitamins is that they are intact in cooked food because they are fat-soluble. It is not necessary to take vitamins every day.

The need for these vitamins should be met only by playing regular nutritious meals and living an orderly simple normal life. Even then, if you notice symptoms of vitamin deficiency, seek medical attention first.

The doctor will give you some biochemical tests. This test or the biochemical status of your body will determine if you are really deficient in vitamins.

The doctor will come to this conclusion by measuring the various active and metabolic forms of vitamins that have been discussed. And then, as the only doctor says, you can take vitamin supplements.

Otherwise, you may suffer from the symptoms of taking extra vitamins.

Stay healthy everyone. Adhere to hygiene rules.

References: Lipinkots Biochemistry latest edition, Parks Community Medicine, Oxford Medicine, D-Gruchi Hematology, and the author’s personal experience in the medical profession.

Author: Dr. Saleh Muhammad MBBS (DU).

Tags: Disease Health Information