Fluoroscopy room with control space, separated by lead glass.
The high density of lead is due to the combination of its high atomic mass and the relatively small size of its bond lengths and atomic radius. The high atomic mass means that more electrons are needed to maintain a neutral charge and the small bond length and small atomic radius mean that many atoms can be packed into a particular lead structure. Due to the density of lead and the high number of electrons, it is suitable for the diffusion of X-rays and gamma rays.
These rays form photons, a type of boson, that impart energy to electrons when they come into contact. Without a lead shield, the electrons within a person’s body would be affected, which could damage their DNA. When radiation tries to pass through lead, its electrons absorb and scatter energy. However, over time, lead will degrade due to the energy it is exposed to. However, lead is not effective against all types of radiation. The high-energy electrons (including beta radiation) found in lead can create bremsstrahlung radiation, which is potentially more dangerous to tissues than the original radiation. Furthermore, lead is not a particularly effective absorber of neutron radiation.
Lead is used to protect in x-ray machines, nuclear power plants, laboratories, medical facilities, military equipment, and other places where radiation can be found. There is a wide variety of types of shielding available both to protect people and to shield equipment and experiments. In gamma spectroscopy, for example, castles of lead are built to protect the probe from ambient radiation. The personal shield includes lead aprons (such as family clothing worn during dental X-rays), thyroid screens, and lead gloves. A variety of protective devices are also available for laboratory equipment, including lead castles, lead brick structures, and lead pigs, made from solid lead or lead-lined containers for the storage and transport of radioactive samples. In many structures where radiation occurs, regulations require construction with lead-lined plywood or drywall to protect adjacent rooms from diffuse radiation. 
A lead apron or lead apron is a type of protective clothing that serves as a radiation shield. It consists of a thin outer layer of rubber and a lead interior in the shape of a hospital apron. The purpose of the lead apron is to reduce a hospital patient’s X-ray exposure of vital organs potentially exposed to ionizing radiation during X-ray medical imaging (radiography, fluoroscopy, computed tomography).
Protection of the reproductive organs with a lead rubber apron is considered important because DNA modifications in the patient’s sperm or oocytes can transmit genetic defects to the patient’s offspring, causing serious and unnecessary discomfort to the child and parents. [Appointment necessary]
The thyroid gland is particularly vulnerable to X-ray exposure. Care must be taken to place a lead apron over the thyroid gland before taking dental X-rays.   Aprons used for dental imaging must include thyroid collars. However, in poorer or less regulated countries , perhaps due to the cost of such equipment (around US $ 40),  patients themselves do not have such protection against lead,  although operators yes Come on. from the X-ray room for your safety.
The correct thickness of lead equivalent wear (Pbeq) will depend on how long and how often the person works in an exposed environment. The minimum requirement is to use 0.25mm Pbeq when not behind lead shielding. In an operating room using fluoroscopy (eg, orthopedics, cardiology, or interventional radiology), a 0.35 or 0.5 mm lead may be appropriate due to the higher KV used and close to the primary beam.
A rubber-lined lead apron protects organs from X-ray exposure.
Protection of the thyroid gland.
X-ray of hips with testicular shield.